The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. The wax will most often make its way to the opening of the ear. There it will fall out or be removed by washing.
Wax can build up and block the ear canal. Wax blockage is one of the most common causes of hearing loss.
Ear impaction; Cerumen impaction; Ear blockage
Ear wax protects the ear by:
Trapping and preventing dust, bacteria, and other germs and small objects from entering and damaging the ear
Protecting the delicate skin of the ear canal from getting irritated when water is in the canal
In some people, the glands produce more wax than can be easily removed from the ear. This extra wax may harden in the ear canal and block the ear. When you try to clean the ear, you may instead push wax deeper and block the ear canal.
Ashutosh Kacker, MD, BS, Professor of Clinical Otolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Attending Otolaryngologist, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.